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  1. Introduction
  2. Overview
  3. Details paragraph 1 [StartPoint -> MidPoint]
  4. Details paragraph 2 [MidPoint -> EndPoint]
1. Introduction 2. Overview 3. Details paragraph1 4. Details paragraph2
1. Introduction 2. Overview 3. Details paragraph1 4. Details paragraph2

1. Waste produced by 3 companies

The graph below shows the amounts of waste produced by 3 companies over a period of 15years.

over X years from 2000 to 2015

1.1 Introduction

The line graph compares 3 companies in terms of their waste output between the year 2000 and the year 2015.

1.2 overview

On the whole, it is clear that there were significant changes in the amounts of waste produced by all 3 companies shown on the graph. While companies A and B saw waste output fall over 15-year period, the amount of waste produced by company C increased considerably.

important 句子

  1. saw + noun + verb: saw waste output fall

While 尽管/虽然
fall [fɔːl] 是原形,“fell”是“fall”的过去式. “fall in love with”与“fell in love with”意思相同.
considerably /kənˈsid(ə)rəblē/ 相当

1.3 bady 1

1. Introduction 2. Overview 3. Details paragraph1 4. Details paragraph2
1. Introduction 2. Overview 3. Details paragraph1 4. Details paragraph2

In 2000, company A produced 12 tonnes of waste, while companies B and C produced around 8 tonnes and 4 tonnes of waste material respectively.

Over the following 5 years, the waste output of companies B and C rose by around 2 tonnes, but the figure for company A fell by approximately 1 tonnes.

important 句子

  1. company A produced…, while companies B and C produced…, and…

fell fell”是“fall”的过去式

adv:

  1. around /əˈround/
  2. approximately /əˈpräksəmətlē/
  3. roughly /ˈrəflē/
  4. respectively /rəˈspektivlē/ 分别, 各自地

ton[tʌn] 和 tonne [tʌn]

  1. ton (美联邦国家, long ton = 1 英噸 = 2,240 磅 = 1.0160469088 公噸 = 1,016.0469088 公斤)
  2. tonne = 1 公噸 = 1,000 公斤 【metric ton】

1.4 bady 2

From 2005 to 2015, company A cut waste production by roughly 3 tonnes, and company B reduced its waste by around 7 tonnes. By contrast, company C saw an increase in waste production of approximately 4 tonnes over the same 10-year period. By 2015, company C’s waste output had risen to 10 tonnes, while the respective amounts of waste from companies A and B had dropped to 8 tonnes and only 3 tonnes.

important 句子

  1. saw + noun + noun: saw in increase in waste production
  2. had risen/dropped to 10 tonnes - rise 是不及物动词,只能说 sth. rise(s), rose(过去式),risen(过去分词)

过去式是一个动词,而过去分词是一个动词的非谓语形式,相当于一个形容词或副词

v:

  1. cut
  2. reduced
  3. contrast: noun /ˈkɒntrɑːst/ 对比/对照 | verb /kənˈtrɑːst/ 形成对比 | By contrast 相比之下
    过去分词表的意义是被动或完成。 三、不过,过去式和过去分词最主要的区别是:过去式是一个动词

2. average carbon dioxide

1. Introduction 2. Overview 3. Details paragraph1 4. Details paragraph2
1. Introduction 2. Overview 3. Details paragraph1 4. Details paragraph2
1. Introduction 2. Overview 3. Details paragraph1 4. Details paragraph2
1. Introduction 2. Overview 3. Details paragraph1 4. Details paragraph2

The graph below shows average carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per person in the United Kingdom, Sweden, Italy and Portugal between 1967 and 2007.
This essay question is from Cambridge IELTS 11 Test 3 Writing Task 1.

Average carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per person, 1967-2007

Line Chart - 懂得取舍,横轴多数为年份

1st: 起始年份 (变化)
2nd: 中间年份 (通常都不会错)
3rd: 完结年份

3个点, 2个趋势

1. Introduction 2. Overview 3. Details paragraph1 4. Details paragraph2
1. Introduction 2. Overview 3. Details paragraph1 4. Details paragraph2

1. Introduction 引入段 (如何写)

  1. show = illustrates
  2. the graph = the line chart
  3. between 1967 and 2007 = over 40years from 1967 to 2007.

The graph below shows average carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per person in the United Kingdom, Sweden, Italy and Portugal between 1967 and 2007.

1. Introduction 2. Overview 3. Details paragraph1 4. Details paragraph2
1. Introduction 2. Overview 3. Details paragraph1 4. Details paragraph2

Per capita income rose sharply last year.

2. Overview 概括段 [IMP]

1. Introduction 2. Overview 3. Details paragraph1 4. Details paragraph2
1. Introduction 2. Overview 3. Details paragraph1 4. Details paragraph2

On the whole, the UK and Sweden showed a general decreasing trend in terms of CO2 emissions while Italy and Portugal both witnessed a steady rising trend. Throughout this period, the UK had the highest CO2 emissions, while Portugal remained the lowest.

overall: 1. includes comparison 2. 2~3 key features 3. not include specific data

Throughout [θruːˈaʊt] , witnessed [ˈwɪtnəst]

3. body1 (3点2势 start -> mid)

1. Introduction 2. Overview 3. Details paragraph1 4. Details paragraph2
1. Introduction 2. Overview 3. Details paragraph1 4. Details paragraph2

In 1967, the highest CO2 emissions were in the UK, at around 11, followed by Sweden at approximately 9. Italy and Portugal had relatively lower emissions, at around 4 and 1 respectively.
Around 1987, CO2 emissions per capita in the UK steadily dropped to 10, still being the highest. In Sweden, despite the short initial increase to above 10, CO2 emissions later dropped to around 7, which was the same as those in Italy, which had witnessed an increase. At the same time, the average emissions of CO2 climbed to around 3 in Portugal, remaining the lowest.

4. body paragraph 2

1. Introduction 2. Overview 3. Details paragraph1 4. Details paragraph2
1. Introduction 2. Overview 3. Details paragraph1 4. Details paragraph2

In 2007, CO2 emissions continued falling in the UK, now at around 9, albeit still the highest among the four countries. CO2 emissions in Italy had been climbing consistently to slightly under 8, now being the second highest. The falling trend of CO2 emissions in Sweden continued, meeting those in Portugal at around 5.

一、线形图数据的描写

线形图的基本特征是,随着一段时间的推移,图里的元素发生升高、降低或者不变的趋势。所以,我们需要掌握基本动词的表达。

On the whole, the university graduates showed a general incresing trend.

1. Introduction 2. Overview 3. Details paragraph1 4. Details paragraph2
1. Introduction 2. Overview 3. Details paragraph1 4. Details paragraph2

URBAN POPULATION NUMBERS

On the whole, it is clear that three countries had an increaseing